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trooke.10
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PostSubject: Waste - Knowledge pedia   Tue Sep 22, 2009 12:37 pm

Waste is also referred to as rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk depending upon the type of material and the regional terminology. In living organisms, waste relates to unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from them. Waste management is the control of the collection, treatment and disposal of different wastes. This is in order to reduce the negative impacts waste has on environment and society. There are many waste types, notably including municipal solid waste, commercial waste, and hazardous waste.

Waste is directly linked to the human development, both technologically and socially. The composition of different wastes have varied over time and location, with industrial development and innovation being directly linked to waste materials. Examples of this include plastics and nuclear technology. Some components of waste have economical value and can be recycled once correctly recovered.

Biodegradable waste, such as food waste or sewage, is broken down naturally by microorganisms either aerobically or anaerobically. If the disposal of biodegradable waste is not controlled it can cause a number of wider problems including contributing to the release of greenhouse gases and can impact upon human health via encouragement of pathogens.

Waste is sometimes a subjective concept, because items that some people discard may have value to others. It is widely recognised that waste materials are a valuable resource, whilst there is debate as to how this value is best realised. Governments need to define what waste is in order that it can be safely and legally managed. Different definitions need to be combined in order to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste.[1]. The European Union has started a discussion that will end in an End-of-Waste directive which will clarify the distinction between waste — that shall be treated for disposal — and raw materials that can be reused for the same or other purposes [2].

As a nation, Americans generate more waste than any other nation in the world with 4.5 pounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) per person per day, 55 percent of which is contributed as residential garbage. The remaining 45 percent of waste in the U.S.'s ‘waste stream' comes from manufacturing, retailing, and commercial trade in the U.S. economy [3]. However, on a per capita basis Canadians produce the most solid waste in the world - 5.05 pounds per day. [4].

Definitions
The European Union defines waste as an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard is waste under the Waste Framework Directive (European Directive 75/442/EC as amended).

Once a substance or object has become waste, it will remain waste until it has been fully recovered and no longer poses a potential threat to the environment or to human health."[6]
Schematic illustration of the EU Legal definition of waste.

The UK's Environmental Protection Act 1990 indicated waste includes any substance which constitutes a scrap material, an effluent or other unwanted surplus arising from the application of any process or any substance or article which requires to be disposed of which has been broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled; this is supplemented with anything which is discarded otherwise dealt with as if it were waste shall be presumed to be waste unless the contrary is proved. This definition was amended by the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 defining waste as:

"any substance or object which the producer or the person in possession of it, discards or intends or is required to discard but with exception of anything excluded from the scope of the Waste Directive".[7]

Education and awareness

Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs, e.g. the waste management university project. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations, e.g. WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management.
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sam

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PostSubject: Re: Waste - Knowledge pedia   Wed Sep 23, 2009 12:20 pm

wow u kno alot
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trooke.10
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PostSubject: Re: Waste - Knowledge pedia   Wed Sep 23, 2009 12:21 pm

It wasn't me it was the Wikipedia albino Rolling Eyes
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PostSubject: Re: Waste - Knowledge pedia   Fri Sep 25, 2009 2:42 pm

lol everything is wikipedia
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PostSubject: Re: Waste - Knowledge pedia   Sat Sep 26, 2009 1:36 pm

ok
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